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Overlays are a very old technique for squeezing quart-sized programs into pint-sized memories: a kind of poor man's paging.

In common with paged programs, an overlaid program is stored on some backing store medium such as a floppy disc or a hard disc and its components (called overlay segments) are loaded into memory only as required. In theory, this reduces the amount of memory required to run a program at the expense of increasing the time taken to load it and repeatedly re-load parts of it. It is a classic space-time trade-off. In practice, except in rather special circumstances, the saving in memory accruing from the use of overlays is rather modest and less than you might expect. Indeed, as discussed below, overlays have rather restricted applicability under RISC OS. Nonetheless, their use can occasionally be a 'life saver'.

Paging vs overlays

In a paged system, a program and its workspace is broken up into fixed size chunks called pages. A combination of special hardware and operating system support ensures that pages are loaded only when needed and that un-needed pages are soon discarded. In principle, the author of a paged program need not be aware that it will be paged (but this is often not true in practice if the author wishes the program to run at maximum speed). Both code and data are paged, automatically. In general, for single programs which re-use their workspace whenever possible, one sees a ratio of program size plus workspace size to occupied memory size in the region 1.5 to 3. One can always increase the ratio arbitrarily by integrating several sequentially used programs into a single image and by never re-using workspace. But, fundamentally, paging rarely squeezes more than a quart-sized program into a pint-sized memory. Of course, there are other benefits of paging, but these are beyond the scope of this section.

In contrast, an overlaid program is broken up into variable sized chunks (called overlay segments) by the user, who also determines which of these chunks may share the same area of memory. As the overlay system permits two code fragments which share the same area of memory to call one another and return successfully to the caller, this is merely a matter of performance. However, if data is included in an overlaid segment the situation becomes more complicated and the user has more work to do. For example, it must be ensured that all code which uses the data resides in the same segment as the data. Furthermore, it must be acceptable that the data is re-initialised every time the segment is re-loaded. Thus, in general, it is possible to overlay two work areas each of which is private to two distinct sets of functions which are not simultaneously resident in memory. Overall, it would be unusual to overlay more than a quart-sized program into a pint-sized memory, much as with paging (you may achieve a factor as high as four for code, but non-overlaid data will usually dilute the overall factor substantially; it all depends on the details of your application).

A more detailed description of the low-level aspects of overlays is given in the Generating overlaid programs of the Desktop Tools guide. If you are especially interested in using overlays you may prefer to read that section next. Otherwise, if you are more interested in when to use overlays, please read on.

When to use overlays

Overlays work best when a program has several semi-independent parts. A good model for purposes of understanding is to think of a special-purpose command interpreter (the root segment) which can invoke separate commands (overlay segments) in response to user input. Consider, for example, a word processor which consists of a text editor and a collection of printer drivers. It is clear that each of the printer drivers can be overlaid (you are unlikely to have more than one printer); it may even be plausible to overlay each with the editor itself (you may not be able to edit while printing - depending on how fast the printer goes and on how much CPU time is required to drive it). Furthermore, if the time taken to load an overlay segment can be tacked on to an interaction with the user, it is probable that the program will feel little slower than if it were memory-resident. In summary: overlays work best if your program has many independent sub-functions.

On the other hand, if your program has many semi-independent parts, it may be better to structure it as several independent programs, each called from a control program. By using the shared C library, each program can be relatively small, and the Squeeze utility can be used to reduce the space taken by it on backing store by nearly a factor of 2. (See the chapter entitled Squeeze of the Desktop Tools guide for details). In contrast, overlay segments cannot be squeezed (though the root program can be). So, if you can structure your application as independent, squeezed programs it may take up less precious floppy disc space and load faster, especially from a floppy disc, than if you structure it using overlays.

If adopted, this strategy will force the independent programs to communicate via files. Provided the data to be communicated has a simple structure this causes no problems for the application; provided it is not too voluminous, use of the RAM filing system (RamFS) is suggested as this is fast and requires no special application code in order to use it.

So, overlays are most appropriate for applications which manipulate very large amounts of highly structured data - Computer Aided Design applications are archetypal here - whereas multiple independent programs are most appropriate for applications which manipulate relatively small amounts of simply structured data and are otherwise dominated by large amounts of code.

Naturally, if you are porting an existing application to RISC OS, your view will be coloured by whether or not it is already structured to use overlays. If it is, it will probably be best to stick to using overlays, rather than attempting to split the application up into semi-independent sub-applications.

On the other hand, if you are writing an application from scratch, you probably want to ponder this question in more depth. For example, to what other systems will the application be targeted? Using multiple semi-independent applications may work very nicely under UNIX or OS/2 where the output of one process can be piped into another, but less well under MS-DOS where use of overlays is much more the norm.

© 3QD Developments Ltd 2013